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The challenges of going to Mars and back safely

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There are many things that humanity must overcome before launching any Journey To Mars.

It represents NASA and SpaceX, which work closely together on missions to the International Space Station, The two main players in that mission. At the same time, they have competing ideas about what a Mars mission might look like.

Payload mass is the biggest challenge for this mission, including spacecraft, people, fuel and supplies.

Travel crises:

The payload mass is usually just a small percentage of the launch vehicle’s total mass. For example it was the weight of a missile Saturn V who launched a mission Apollo 11 To the moon 3000 tons.

However it could launch 140 tons (5 percent of the initial launch mass) to low Earth orbit, and 50 tons (less than 2 percent of the initial launch mass) to the Moon.

Mass limits the size of a spacecraft and what it can do in space. Each maneuver costs hundreds of liters of fuel to power the rocket engines. Currently, this fuel must be transported into space aboard the spacecraft.

SpaceX’s plan is to Resupply vehicle Starship Manned fuel in space by a separate fuel tanker. This means that much more fuel can be carried into orbit than can be carried in a single launch.

Read also: NASA sends two missions to Venus

Fuel Challenge:

Another challenge is closely related to fuel. Missions that send uncrewed spacecraft to exoplanets often travel intricate paths around the sun.

Missions use so-called maneuvers gravity assist In order to effectively launch around the different planets to gain enough momentum to reach their target.

These maneuvers save a lot of fuel. But missions can take years to reach their destination.

Earth and Mars have nearly circular orbits. The maneuver is known as Hohmann transfer The most fuel efficient way to travel between two planets.

Hohmann’s transition between Earth and Mars takes about 259 days (between eight to nine months). It is possible about every two years due to the different orbits around the Sun, Earth and Mars.

A spacecraft can reach Mars in a shorter time. But it costs more fuel to do so.

Safe landing:

Another issue is how to land safely. And theA spacecraft entering Earth can use the clouds generated by the interaction with the atmosphere to slow down their speed. This allows the vehicle to land safely on Earth’s surface (provided that it can handle the relevant heat).

But the atmosphere on Mars is 100 times thinner than the atmosphere on Earth. This means less possibility of dragging, so it is not possible to land safely without some kind of assistance.

Some missions landed on airbags, such as the mission Pathfinder affiliated with NASA. While others used thrusters like they did with a mission Phoenix Also affiliated with NASA.

Also Read: A Journey to Space with Jeff Bezos for $28 Million

Life on Mars:

A Martian day lasts 24 hours and 37 minutes, but the similarities to Earth stop there. Which means that the thin atmosphere on Mars cannot retain heat as it does on Earth.

Therefore, life on Mars is characterized by significant extremes of temperatures during the day and night cycle, with a maximum temperature of 30 degrees Celsius on Mars.

But its lowest temperature is minus 140 degrees Celsius, and its average temperature is 63 degrees Celsius below zero, while the average winter temperature in the Earth’s Antarctica is about 49 Celsius below zero.

And so we need to be very selective about where we choose to live on Mars and how we manage temperature at night.

The gravity on Mars is 38 percent of Earth’s, so it feels lighter. But air consists mainly of carbon dioxide with a small percentage of nitrogen, so it is completely unbreathable.

And theplan SpaceX to launch Many Cargo Trips, including critical infrastructure such as greenhouses, solar panels and a fuel production facility for back-to-Earth missions.

And life on Mars would be possible. Numerous simulation experiments have been conducted on Earth to find out how people deal with such an existence.

Read also: NASA sends two missions to Venus

Back to Earth:

The final challenge is the journey back and people safely back to Earth. The Apollo 11 mission entered the Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of about 40,000 kilometers per hour, which is slightly less than the speed required to escape from Earth’s orbit.

The spacecraft returning from Mars will have return speeds between 47,000 and 54,000 kilometers per hour. That depends on the orbit you’re using to reach Earth.

The speed in low Earth orbit can slow to about 28,800 kilometers per hour before entering our atmosphere. But the vehicle needs additional fuel to do so.

It must be ensured that the astronauts are not killed by the equivalent force of gravity or burned due to excessive heat.

It is noteworthy that these challenges are just some of the challenges facing the Mars mission. It can be argued that all the technical requirements to achieve this are in place, but we need to spend more time and money to solve all these challenges.

Also Read: 10 Photo Editing Apps That Help You Enhance Your Photos

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